Lithium-sulphur batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage devices.
They have a theoretical gravimetric energy density that is five times higher than that of the best lithium-ion batteries currently available.
And they even work at sub-zero temperatures of down to -50 C. In addition, sulphur is inexpensive and environmentally friendly.
However, their capacity so far has fallen sharply with every charge-discharge cycle, so that such batteries are not yet long-lasting.
The loss of capacity is caused by complicated reaction processes at the electrodes inside the battery cell.
It is therefore particularly important to understand exactly how the charge (sulphur) and discharge (lithium sulphide) products precipitate and dissolve.