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Top 6 Human Development Challenges that India is facing in 2022

Top 6 Human Development Challenges that India is facing in 2022

Economies from around the world continue to work on human development challenges. Human development initiatives keep taking turns every decade and every new industrial development.

The foundation of human growth is laid on the concept of humanity. Human development goes beyond the idea of economic growth with the economy's wealth maximisation. The concept of human growth is more about increasing freedom, improving capacities, giving everyone an equal chance at success, and ensuring a long, healthy life.

Human development is a critical factor in determining a country's overall development. To evaluate the summary measure of the areas of human development, Human Development Index was conceptualised.

India is anticipated to surpass China as the world's most populated nation by 2030 when its population reaches 1.5 billion. India has increased its economy, but it has not progressed with HDI. India dropped to 132 out of 191 nations in the HDI worldwide ranking in 2022.

What is Human Development?

Global discussions on economic growth and development in the latter half of the 20th century led to the coining of the term human development. Human development is known to expand people's freedoms and possibilities, enhancing their well-being. Human growth is about freedom, as individuals have to choose who they are, what they do, and how to live. Mahbub ul Haq, an economist, is regarded as the creator of human progress.

Why is Human Development Important for a Country?

A country needs to study and evaluate human growth and development thoroughly. This helps build a comprehensive understanding of the development of a nation. A broad study of human development is needed to combat future human development challenges.

A country should make efforts to study its human development because of the following reasons:

       It helps better understand the social status of all sections of the population.

       It adds knowledge on how social context impacts development.

       It helps in understanding how any type of societal change can support or hinder a nation's overall growth and development.

Top 6 Human Development Challenges in India

India currently has deficient levels of human development for various reasons. India has historically had low levels of human development due to numerous issues, including money, education, gender inequality, and many others. These have had countless negative and alarming repercussions on Indian society. These include the famed Indian slums, where people endure appalling living circumstances and struggle just to survive, in contrast to the well-off and wealthy Indians. Even in 2022, India continues to work. We list down the various human development challenges that India faces.

1.        Gender Inequality

In Indian society, gender inequality is a significant problem. Some traditionally rooted gender inequality norms severely impact women's life despite decades of amendments in the constitution that promises equal rights for men and women.

Several factors contribute to India's low ranking on gender equality - including economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, political empowerment, and legal protection - including high levels of discrimination against women and various discriminatory social norms and laws, and cultural practices. It is common for women to be discriminated against in India, including being inaccessible to jobs and education, underrepresented in politics, suffering from worse health and nutrition, and facing overt violence.

2.        Low Rate of Gross Enrollment

In India, many kids leave school early, which harms their economic and social well-being and fosters a non-innovative environment.

According to the National Sample Survey Office, this is due to children's involvement in the household or commercial activities, budgetary restrictions, and declining enthusiasm in school.

In another study by the District Information System for Education, a lack of educational and career counselling at the school level is also to be blamed for students’ lack of enthusiasm for learning.

3.        Lack of Effective Educational Infrastructure

India has more than 500 million people between the ages of 5 and 24; this offers a significant opportunity for the growth of the education sector. Infrastructure, such as classrooms, water and sanitation facilities, digital learning facilities, and sports facilities, has a significant role in determining the quality of education.

However, due to inadequate funding, regional differences, and a lack of stringent regulatory systems, India falls short of high-quality universal education nationwide.

4.        Inadequate Health Facilities

India treats health as a state matter. Although each of the Indian states sets its priorities for financing health care and offers services to the populace, the central government contributes significantly to establishing the health care infrastructure. Poor housing conditions, contaminated water sources, a lack of sanitation, the use of biomass fuels, and exposure to environmental risks due to a person's livelihood raise their chance of developing various health issues.

Despite improvements in the healthcare system, there are still significant quality discrepancies between rural and urban areas, public and private healthcare providers, and the healthcare industry.

The Indian people with low and middle incomes must pay out-of-pocket medical expenses, which limits their ability to advance economically and keeps them in poverty.

5.    Lack of Proper Nutrition

One of the significant human development challenges in India is poverty. Lack of proper nutrition or malnutrition is an essential consequence of poverty. Malnutrition costs India over $10 billion yearly, hinders progress in human development, and decreases infant mortality. This is because of poverty, inequality, and food insecurity.

India ranks 107th out of 121 countries in the Global Hunger Index in 2022.

6.    Lack of Social Security

The social security system in India is made up of numerous plans and initiatives spread throughout multiple laws and rules. But keep in mind that just a tiny part of Indians are covered by the country's centralised social security system. At the same time, a substantial portion of the Indian population works in the unorganised sector. It may not be eligible to participate in any of these programmes.

Nearly 88% of India's labour force comprises contract-free daily wage workers, landless farm labourers, and gig workers. Most of these undocumented workers and their families do not have access to social security.

The Covid-19 Pandemic significantly impacted informal workers in rural and urban areas because of the seasonal nature of their work and the absence of a formal employee-employer connection.


The current state of affairs in India amply demonstrates that, despite significant progress in raising the country's Human Development Index, the government of India still strives to reduce poverty, eliminate prejudice, and improve educational opportunities for its citizens. We must concentrate on crucial concerns such as lowering maternal death rates, achieving gender equality, and ensuring everyone have access to clean water and sanitary facilities. On a large scale, a holistic approach in all the folds of human development is an absolute must if India wishes to make a better place for its population.

Know More: https://executive.timespro.com/course/general-management/iim-kozhikode-certificate-programme-in-management-of-social-initiatives/

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