With the continuous development of science and technology, the ability and scope of human development and utilization of natural resources are expanding, and the ensuing environmental pollution problems are becoming more and more serious. Environmental pollution has become an important factor restricting the development of human society. Therefore, environmental protection issues have received increasing attention. Traditional techniques for solving environmental pollution have become increasingly insufficient to cope with the increasingly serious environmental problems, and there is an urgent need to find a new method that is faster and more efficient to solve environmental problems.
Due to the development of biotechnology in various fields and the combined development of environmental engineering technology and biotechnology, environmental biotechnology as a new technology system to solve environmental pollution has become the direction of development today and now. The application of enzymes and enzyme technology in the field of environmental protection has played an increasingly important role, providing new technical means for environmental protection and pollution control. At the same time, due to its broad market prospects, it will certainly produce great economic and social benefits.
Enzyme is a kind of biological macromolecule composed of amino acids with biological catalytic function, that is, biological catalyst. The chemical nature of the enzyme is protein, which can greatly speed up the biochemical reaction in life, but it does not change the nature of the biochemical reaction and does not cause toxic and harmful substances in the body. Therefore, it is highly efficient and environmentally friendly.
Overview of enzyme preparations for environmental protection
1.1 Mechanism of biological enzyme catalytic technology to remove pollutants
The application of biological enzyme catalysis technology to the removal of pollutants is a series of biological enzymes and bacteria combining technology that is different from ordinary microbial bacteria. Through enzymes, the more complex chemical chains in pollutants are opened, and they are quickly degraded into small molecules,the molecular organic matter is degraded into low molecular organic matter or inorganic matter such as CO2, H2O, etc., reducing the COD value, so as to achieve the purpose of removing pollutants and greatly reducing the cost of sewage treatment. The mechanism by which biological enzymes treat organic matter is to form free radicals by enzymatic reaction first, and then the free radicals undergo chemical polymerization to form polymer compound precipitates. Compared with other microbial treatments, the enzyme treatment method has the advantages of high catalytic efficiency, mild reaction conditions, low requirements for wastewater quality and equipment conditions, fast reaction speed, wide adaptability to temperature, concentration and toxic substances, and reusability.
1.2 Enzyme technology and environmental protection
Enzymes are catalytic proteins produced by living cells, also known as biocatalysts. Extensive in organisms, the product after enzyme extraction and processing is called enzyme preparation. After the 1970s, with the emergence of the second generation of enzyme immobilization and related technologies, enzyme engineering was truly on the stage of history.
Immobilized enzymes are increasingly playing a huge role in environmental protection and other fields. Modern research shows that the relationship between enzymes in environment protection and enzyme technology and environmental protection is very close, mainly manifesting the following three aspects:
①Replacing chemicals with enzymes during product processing (replacement of chemical processes with biological processes has milder reactions) can reduce the pollution level in production activities, which is conducive to the realization of ecological or waste-free production processes, and truly achieve the goal of cleaner production ;
② As a biological catalyst, the enzyme only acts on the content of the product, which greatly reduces the pollution generated by the product in the process and is conducive to environmental protection.
③The characteristics of the enzyme, such as mild reaction conditions, strong specificity and high catalytic efficiency, determine the advantages of efficient, fast and reliable pollutant treatment and environmental monitoring. Therefore, enzyme engineering technology has broad prospects in the field of environmental governance.
1.3 Research direction of enzymes for environmental protection
At present, environmental protection enzymes are mainly dedicated to the research and development of the following aspects: ①Development of industrial production technology for environmental protection enzyme preparations; ②Application of environmentally friendly enzyme immobilized low-cost carriers; The new enzyme reactor is the core component of the sewage treatment system technology development.
1.4 Market Demand for Enzymes for Environmental Protection
With the continuous modernization of social life and the rapid development of industrialization, the problem of environmental pollution has become increasingly severe. The traditional technologies and processes for solving environmental pollution can no longer meet the practical requirements. The application of enzymes and enzyme technology in the field of environmental protection plays an increasingly important role. At the same time, due to its broad market prospects, it will certainly produce great economic and social benefits.