A step towards new "beyond lithium" rechargeable batteries with superior performance has been made by researchers at the University of Bath.
We increasingly rely on rechargeable batteries for a host of essential uses; from mobile phones and electric cars to electrical grid storage.
As we continue to transition from fossil fuels to low emission energy sources, new battery technologies will be needed for new applications and more efficient energy storage.
For batteries of equal size, this would give multivalent batteries better energy storage capacity and performance.
The team showed that titanium dioxide can be modified to allow it to be used as an electrode in multivalent batteries, providing a valuable proof of concept in their development.
Dr Benjamin Morgan, from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Bath, said: "Multivalent batteries are a really exciting direction for battery technology, potentially offering higher charge densities and better performance.