The Graphene Flagship project has a dedicated Work Package studying the impact of graphene and related materials on our health, as well as their environmental impact.
Researches and companies are currently using a range of materials such as few layered graphene, graphene oxide and heterostructures.
This work overviews the production and characterisation methods, and considers different materials, which biological effects depend on their inherent properties.
"One of the key messages is that this family of materials has varying properties, thus displaying varying biological effects.
It is important to emphasize the need not only for a systematic analysis of well-characterized graphene-based materials, but also the importance of using standardised in vitro or in vivo assays for the safety assessment," says Bengt Fadeel, lead author of this paper working at Graphene Flagship partner Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
"This review correlates the physicochemical characteristics of graphene and related materials to the biological effects.