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3ideatech 2021-02-08
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1.Choose a reliable printer with an upgraded roomWhat factors will a Newbie consider before he/she is going to get started to do 3D printing?

Practicability, reliability, and affordable price are factors worth being considered.Starting with a pre-assembly process, makers can get a comprehensive understanding of 3D printers and their accessories.

Scale down or hollow out your modelIf it doesn’t necessarily require a big size or solid structure for your prints, scaling down or hollowing out your model will substantially decrease the cost.3.

Eliminate unnecessary support structureIt is commonly known that prints can’t stand naturally on the hotbed if the model is designed with some angles.

Support is necessary for FDM printing, but cost materials and more time, even additional post-processing for further smoothness and polish.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-01-11
img

Till recently, the process of transforming a 3D printed things right into a ready-to-use item was still laborious belief, for instance, of manually cutting tags or other assistance structures, or sanding, polishing as well as over painting.The series of applications for 3D printers is becoming even broader.

This is why we hear a lot regarding innovative tasks in aerospace, the production market as well as clinical scientific research.

Equally as fascinating is the introduction of full-color 3D inkjet technology, which can be used to publish 3D objects in no less than 10 million colors.

Printing models in full colorThe UV led inkjet print technology advertises the development significantly.

The product is equally as hard as ABS, making it ideal for various applications, and similar to traditional inkjet printers, it can also create more than 10 million colors.

There are indeed numerous 3D printers on the marketplace, however, they mainly differ in facets like the print resolution and sorts of product they sustain.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-02-15
img

Photo polymer resins like clear resin, standard resin, to name a few, are used to make prototypes in SLA.

These resins, or ‘build materials’ as they are called are in a liquid state.

A part’s entire cross section is traversed by the laser as it builds up each layer.SLA is better suited to printing parts with small and well defined features.

When printed using SLA, parts generally yield higher dimensional tolerances a better surface finish.SLA presents a challenge when printing larger parts, as they need support during the printing process.

The technique uses polyamide and polystyrene powders as building materials.

Layers of the materials are carefully on the build tray using a leveler or roller.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-01-27
img

But speaking of molding utility, DLP technology is more complex and more adaptable for the dental or Jewelry mold.

Resin 3d printing is known for its great ability to achieve very nice, highly detailed parts, all thanks to a technology called vat polymerization.

Of course, both of them are used resin and light source to make parts, the comparative difference mainly is the light source type which use to cure the resin.

The process  An SLA 3D printer consists of a vat (a resin tank), a build platform, and an elevator— used for moving the build platform upwards or downwards— a light source and a pair of galvanometers.

When starting a 3D print on a “top-down” SLA 3D printer, there’s a single layer of resin on the build platform.

A DMD contains hundreds of thousands or even millions of small micro mirrors that direct the light and create the pattern of a layer.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-04-12
img

With 3D printing already playing a crucial role in the production of low-cost satellites and lighter, efficient rockets, its role in future human space travel & interplanetary colonization is critical, to say the least.

Space is the not the ultimate frontier for humans anymore, inter-planetary travel is.

This makes overcoming the high per kilogram cost of required to escape Earth’s gravity a barrier for most launches.

This can be achieved by printing lighter parts for launch vehicles by using weight optimised geometries and printing parts in space itself at the point of need, like in the International Space Station.With 3D printing already revolutionizing the space industry, increased process automation for batch series or single item production will help reduce the overall cost and production time for making satellites, rockets and other space gears like probes and drones.

This also extends to the manufacturing of space faring aircraft as well, in addition to in-space platforms, ground equipment, launch services and independent space RInter-planetary travel demands the construction of human habitats on alien worlds.

Carrying bulky pre-fabricated parts for such habitats in to space will not only inflate the budget for such inter-planetary missions, but also delay their completion.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-03-10
img

3D printing is on course to change manufacturing forever, among other sectors like healthcare, defense, education and construction to name a few.

Better detail, more efficient use of materials resulting in less waste, effortless modelling are just some of the advantages that make 3D printing a fitting alternative to current manufacturing practices.Adoption of 3D printing on a wide scale across the industrial and domestic spectrum however, has been fueled largely by three major technologies.

This done layer by layer until the model acquires the desired shape, following which the layers are fused together.

A wide range of plastics, metals and composites can be used to print objects using FDM, making it the most widely adopted 3D printing technology today.Stereolithography was one of the first 3D printing technologies to be used.

Invented in the 1980s, Stereolithograhy (SLA) produces parts with high resolution, smooth surface finish and accuracy.

SLA uses a technique known as ‘photo-polymerization’ to print 3D models.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-07-23
img

Over the span of a decade, the Automobile industry has witnessed 3D printing technology transform from a useful alternative to an indispensable tool.

Initially, focused on making prototypes, 3D printing now is responsible for creating complex parts, speeding up tooling cycles, enhancing measurement & testing, while also providing customized solutions.Miniature 3D printed designs of cars are easy to test.

With advances in 3D printing & compatible materials, designers can test various forms & practical functions.

This helps in finalizing optimum design ideas faster, as life size designs of parts & models can be printed immediately upon approval.Rapid tooling is growing at an enormous pace within the industry.

Designing custom tools & 3D printing them saves time, material cost & machine time, making it profitable for automakers in every way.Customization for select vehicle models can be an expensive affair for automakers.

Using 3D printing, customized parts can be easily produced, while lowering cost of customization to OEMs & the end user alike.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-07-14
img

Batteries have become indispensable tools in the battle against fossil fuels & the rise of the EMVs (Electric Motor Vehicles) has highlighted the curial role they play in this struggle.

As usual 3D printing is playing a pivotal role in making batteries cheaper, efficient & compatible with a wide array of applications across the Automobile, Aviation & Marine industry.

3D printing is known to provide a capacity for rapid prototyping & the ability to achieve economies of scale at a blazing speed.

Traditional methods of manufacturing require these to be produced separately & put together to form a single battery unit.

In addition to reducing the price of manufacturing for batteries, 3D printing, also helps in raising the efficiency of batteries, in terms of the amount energy being stored.

This lattice structure helps in exposing more surface area of the electrodes, where the chemical reactions that make a battery work are achieved.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-07-17
img
One of the most important ways 3D printing achieves this, is by making the process of manufacturing ‘rockets’, faster, cheaper & efficient. Modern era requirements of space travel, scientific research, military reconnaissance & broad coverage offerings by mobile & broadband networks to name a few, require space launches of humans &/or satellites into space. Launching any payload into space with a rocket, however, is an expensive & risky affair. On average a rocket used to put payloads into space has more than 100,000 parts, drastically raising the probability of errors & mistakes, which may lead to a mishap. To add to this risk, rockets require huge amounts of fuel a comparatively low payload carrying capacity in terms of weight. Traditional rockets designs like the Titan rockets, which powered the Apollo missions to the Moon, have more than a 100,000 parts.
collect
0
3ideatech 2021-07-01
img

3D printing has made inroads into various industries as an efficient & trusted alternative to traditional methods of design & fabrication.

Aviation & Aerospace industries are amongst the ones that stand to gain most from advantages 3D printing brings to New Product Development & Advanced Manufacturing.

An area ripe for revolution & currently witnessing a metamorphosis, due to 3D printing technologies, is the design of the jet engine itself.

When the first jet engine for civilian use was designed for mass production, humans had yet to land on the moon.

However, since 2016, steady progress has been made towards a redesign & re-imagining of the traditional jet engine design.

One way 3D printing helps, is by providing the ability to have lighter & fewer components.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-03-03
img

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is the focus of this particular blog.3D printing using FDM essentially implies that the object being printed is fused together by printing layer after layer in a certain pattern.Objects are created by extruding layer upon layer of the heated material on the build tray or printing bed of the 3D printer.

FDM 3D printers use a filament of certain material, usually plastic, which is passed through a hot end, to melt.

The melted filament material is used to make layers which are then fused together to give the object its final shape.

A wide variety of materials can be used for FDM 3D printing like plastics, pastes and some metals as well.FDM 3D printers can be fitted with a wide variety of extrusion systems or extruders like filament extruders, pellet extruders, chocolate extruders and paste extruders depending on the required model to be printed.

Scalability is the biggest advantage of using the FDM technique for 3D printing.

None of the other available 3D printing techniques like SLS and SLA, can be scaled like FDM, without major issues propping up.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-04-29
img

From printing thermoplastics to metals, 3D printers can now print your favourite food.

It is important for the food item being printed, that the build material should emerge smoothly from the nozzle & it must maintain its shape upon deposition.

This method of direct deposition allows creation of intricate & detailed designs of food, as opposed to traditional tools like moulds, which are cost effective for quantity production, but offer little to no design intricacy.

Due to the amazing detail SLA brings to 3D printing, it is possible to add detail & customization to foods that was once only possible for skilled artisans.

A 3D printer can help determine the exact quantity of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats as per the user’s age & health requirement.

It also helps people with no cooking skills to cook highly accurate recipes while saving time & energy, often demanded by traditional cooking methods.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-05-28
img

3D Printing is one of the fastest growing industries of this era.

As people are becoming aware of carbon and plastic waste there is need to find out ways to make 3D Printing more “Eco-Friendly”.

There are different ways to make 3D Printing Eco-FriendlyIn spite of the fact that ABS plastic isn't biodegradable, it is conceivable to reuse it.

Fiber recyclers can pound up family squander made of plastic and failed prints and turn them into fiber.

The Filamaker is one fiber processor which can break down your utilized prints and the Filabot, and Recyclebot are two fiber extruders that will repurpose your utilized fiber and make unused fiber.

One company ReDeTec propelled a campaign where they made the ProtoCycler which both grinds your ancient prints and extrudes fiber with one machine.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-01-18
img

The 3D printer features high speed and high utilization rate.

Although the digital operation mode has low fault rate, if the fault appears, it will not only affect the printing quality, but also waste time and filaments, and even damage the machine.

At present, the most common fault of 3D printer is that the nozzle is blocked and cannot discharge.

There are several reasons and solutions about nozzle fault.

Given below are some of the reasons for nozzle blockage and their solutions:-Reason 1The residual filaments solidify and block the nozzle because the nozzle is not cleaned in time after printing.Solution 1First, heat the nozzle to the normal melting temperature of printing consumables; then try to insert the wire into the nozzle manually.

Normally, the downward pressure of manual feeding can penetrate the consumable line and bring out the blocked debris;Finally, if the nozzle still fails to work, try to use a 1.5mm hexagonal wrench to dredge the throat or nozzle.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-03-30
img
3D printing and has gained more equity as a sustainable solution to immediate and custom manufacturing needs during the COVID crisis. Innovations like Block chain, IOT, hi-speed 3d printers and metal 3D printing are some of the key drivers of growth in the 3D printing field. In this blog we will try and outline a few major trends that are expected in the 3D printing industry in 2021.Growth incentivized by application driven approachAn estimated 20% of global consumer goods are expected to use 3D printing for custom made products. This projection is based on the amazing transformative power of 3D printing that can be harnessed by applications and software tailor made to specific 3D printing needs.Reduced Operator InterventionAdvances in 3D printing help manufacturers to focus on processes in the post and pre-production phases. As the models to be printed can be designed virtually, simulation and automation software in tandem with 3D printing will enable better designs with minimal human intervention, while speeding up the manufacturing process.Assimilation of 3D printing in Supply Chains3D printing has great potential to handle resource-intensive tasks. With shorter lead times and fewer equipment needs it has already revolutionized the manufacturing supply chain.
collect
0
3ideatech 2021-02-25
img

The origins of 3D printing can however be traced back to over 30 years ago during the 1980s.

One of the first patents filed for rapid prototyping was by Dr. Kodama in Japan.

Dr. Kodama however was unable to obtain a patent due to some delays.

On the other hand, Charles Hull, who co-founded the company 3D Systems, successfully filed a patent for a technology known as Stereolithography Apparatus or Stereolithography as it is known today, in 1986.

However, the research only yielded processes that were good for prototyping purposes and hence the technology was limited when it came to printing original 3D models.Early 2000s saw the rise of industrial 3D printers, which were suited to building complex parts, with high value and complex geometry.

Around the same time, low cost 3D printers useful for concept modelling and functional prototyping arrived on the scene.

collect
0
3ideatech 2021-02-08
img

1.Choose a reliable printer with an upgraded roomWhat factors will a Newbie consider before he/she is going to get started to do 3D printing?

Practicability, reliability, and affordable price are factors worth being considered.Starting with a pre-assembly process, makers can get a comprehensive understanding of 3D printers and their accessories.

Scale down or hollow out your modelIf it doesn’t necessarily require a big size or solid structure for your prints, scaling down or hollowing out your model will substantially decrease the cost.3.

Eliminate unnecessary support structureIt is commonly known that prints can’t stand naturally on the hotbed if the model is designed with some angles.

Support is necessary for FDM printing, but cost materials and more time, even additional post-processing for further smoothness and polish.

3ideatech 2021-02-15
img

Photo polymer resins like clear resin, standard resin, to name a few, are used to make prototypes in SLA.

These resins, or ‘build materials’ as they are called are in a liquid state.

A part’s entire cross section is traversed by the laser as it builds up each layer.SLA is better suited to printing parts with small and well defined features.

When printed using SLA, parts generally yield higher dimensional tolerances a better surface finish.SLA presents a challenge when printing larger parts, as they need support during the printing process.

The technique uses polyamide and polystyrene powders as building materials.

Layers of the materials are carefully on the build tray using a leveler or roller.

3ideatech 2021-04-12
img

With 3D printing already playing a crucial role in the production of low-cost satellites and lighter, efficient rockets, its role in future human space travel & interplanetary colonization is critical, to say the least.

Space is the not the ultimate frontier for humans anymore, inter-planetary travel is.

This makes overcoming the high per kilogram cost of required to escape Earth’s gravity a barrier for most launches.

This can be achieved by printing lighter parts for launch vehicles by using weight optimised geometries and printing parts in space itself at the point of need, like in the International Space Station.With 3D printing already revolutionizing the space industry, increased process automation for batch series or single item production will help reduce the overall cost and production time for making satellites, rockets and other space gears like probes and drones.

This also extends to the manufacturing of space faring aircraft as well, in addition to in-space platforms, ground equipment, launch services and independent space RInter-planetary travel demands the construction of human habitats on alien worlds.

Carrying bulky pre-fabricated parts for such habitats in to space will not only inflate the budget for such inter-planetary missions, but also delay their completion.

3ideatech 2021-07-23
img

Over the span of a decade, the Automobile industry has witnessed 3D printing technology transform from a useful alternative to an indispensable tool.

Initially, focused on making prototypes, 3D printing now is responsible for creating complex parts, speeding up tooling cycles, enhancing measurement & testing, while also providing customized solutions.Miniature 3D printed designs of cars are easy to test.

With advances in 3D printing & compatible materials, designers can test various forms & practical functions.

This helps in finalizing optimum design ideas faster, as life size designs of parts & models can be printed immediately upon approval.Rapid tooling is growing at an enormous pace within the industry.

Designing custom tools & 3D printing them saves time, material cost & machine time, making it profitable for automakers in every way.Customization for select vehicle models can be an expensive affair for automakers.

Using 3D printing, customized parts can be easily produced, while lowering cost of customization to OEMs & the end user alike.

3ideatech 2021-07-17
img
One of the most important ways 3D printing achieves this, is by making the process of manufacturing ‘rockets’, faster, cheaper & efficient. Modern era requirements of space travel, scientific research, military reconnaissance & broad coverage offerings by mobile & broadband networks to name a few, require space launches of humans &/or satellites into space. Launching any payload into space with a rocket, however, is an expensive & risky affair. On average a rocket used to put payloads into space has more than 100,000 parts, drastically raising the probability of errors & mistakes, which may lead to a mishap. To add to this risk, rockets require huge amounts of fuel a comparatively low payload carrying capacity in terms of weight. Traditional rockets designs like the Titan rockets, which powered the Apollo missions to the Moon, have more than a 100,000 parts.
3ideatech 2021-03-03
img

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is the focus of this particular blog.3D printing using FDM essentially implies that the object being printed is fused together by printing layer after layer in a certain pattern.Objects are created by extruding layer upon layer of the heated material on the build tray or printing bed of the 3D printer.

FDM 3D printers use a filament of certain material, usually plastic, which is passed through a hot end, to melt.

The melted filament material is used to make layers which are then fused together to give the object its final shape.

A wide variety of materials can be used for FDM 3D printing like plastics, pastes and some metals as well.FDM 3D printers can be fitted with a wide variety of extrusion systems or extruders like filament extruders, pellet extruders, chocolate extruders and paste extruders depending on the required model to be printed.

Scalability is the biggest advantage of using the FDM technique for 3D printing.

None of the other available 3D printing techniques like SLS and SLA, can be scaled like FDM, without major issues propping up.

3ideatech 2021-05-28
img

3D Printing is one of the fastest growing industries of this era.

As people are becoming aware of carbon and plastic waste there is need to find out ways to make 3D Printing more “Eco-Friendly”.

There are different ways to make 3D Printing Eco-FriendlyIn spite of the fact that ABS plastic isn't biodegradable, it is conceivable to reuse it.

Fiber recyclers can pound up family squander made of plastic and failed prints and turn them into fiber.

The Filamaker is one fiber processor which can break down your utilized prints and the Filabot, and Recyclebot are two fiber extruders that will repurpose your utilized fiber and make unused fiber.

One company ReDeTec propelled a campaign where they made the ProtoCycler which both grinds your ancient prints and extrudes fiber with one machine.

3ideatech 2021-03-30
img
3D printing and has gained more equity as a sustainable solution to immediate and custom manufacturing needs during the COVID crisis. Innovations like Block chain, IOT, hi-speed 3d printers and metal 3D printing are some of the key drivers of growth in the 3D printing field. In this blog we will try and outline a few major trends that are expected in the 3D printing industry in 2021.Growth incentivized by application driven approachAn estimated 20% of global consumer goods are expected to use 3D printing for custom made products. This projection is based on the amazing transformative power of 3D printing that can be harnessed by applications and software tailor made to specific 3D printing needs.Reduced Operator InterventionAdvances in 3D printing help manufacturers to focus on processes in the post and pre-production phases. As the models to be printed can be designed virtually, simulation and automation software in tandem with 3D printing will enable better designs with minimal human intervention, while speeding up the manufacturing process.Assimilation of 3D printing in Supply Chains3D printing has great potential to handle resource-intensive tasks. With shorter lead times and fewer equipment needs it has already revolutionized the manufacturing supply chain.
3ideatech 2021-01-11
img

Till recently, the process of transforming a 3D printed things right into a ready-to-use item was still laborious belief, for instance, of manually cutting tags or other assistance structures, or sanding, polishing as well as over painting.The series of applications for 3D printers is becoming even broader.

This is why we hear a lot regarding innovative tasks in aerospace, the production market as well as clinical scientific research.

Equally as fascinating is the introduction of full-color 3D inkjet technology, which can be used to publish 3D objects in no less than 10 million colors.

Printing models in full colorThe UV led inkjet print technology advertises the development significantly.

The product is equally as hard as ABS, making it ideal for various applications, and similar to traditional inkjet printers, it can also create more than 10 million colors.

There are indeed numerous 3D printers on the marketplace, however, they mainly differ in facets like the print resolution and sorts of product they sustain.

3ideatech 2021-01-27
img

But speaking of molding utility, DLP technology is more complex and more adaptable for the dental or Jewelry mold.

Resin 3d printing is known for its great ability to achieve very nice, highly detailed parts, all thanks to a technology called vat polymerization.

Of course, both of them are used resin and light source to make parts, the comparative difference mainly is the light source type which use to cure the resin.

The process  An SLA 3D printer consists of a vat (a resin tank), a build platform, and an elevator— used for moving the build platform upwards or downwards— a light source and a pair of galvanometers.

When starting a 3D print on a “top-down” SLA 3D printer, there’s a single layer of resin on the build platform.

A DMD contains hundreds of thousands or even millions of small micro mirrors that direct the light and create the pattern of a layer.

3ideatech 2021-03-10
img

3D printing is on course to change manufacturing forever, among other sectors like healthcare, defense, education and construction to name a few.

Better detail, more efficient use of materials resulting in less waste, effortless modelling are just some of the advantages that make 3D printing a fitting alternative to current manufacturing practices.Adoption of 3D printing on a wide scale across the industrial and domestic spectrum however, has been fueled largely by three major technologies.

This done layer by layer until the model acquires the desired shape, following which the layers are fused together.

A wide range of plastics, metals and composites can be used to print objects using FDM, making it the most widely adopted 3D printing technology today.Stereolithography was one of the first 3D printing technologies to be used.

Invented in the 1980s, Stereolithograhy (SLA) produces parts with high resolution, smooth surface finish and accuracy.

SLA uses a technique known as ‘photo-polymerization’ to print 3D models.

3ideatech 2021-07-14
img

Batteries have become indispensable tools in the battle against fossil fuels & the rise of the EMVs (Electric Motor Vehicles) has highlighted the curial role they play in this struggle.

As usual 3D printing is playing a pivotal role in making batteries cheaper, efficient & compatible with a wide array of applications across the Automobile, Aviation & Marine industry.

3D printing is known to provide a capacity for rapid prototyping & the ability to achieve economies of scale at a blazing speed.

Traditional methods of manufacturing require these to be produced separately & put together to form a single battery unit.

In addition to reducing the price of manufacturing for batteries, 3D printing, also helps in raising the efficiency of batteries, in terms of the amount energy being stored.

This lattice structure helps in exposing more surface area of the electrodes, where the chemical reactions that make a battery work are achieved.

3ideatech 2021-07-01
img

3D printing has made inroads into various industries as an efficient & trusted alternative to traditional methods of design & fabrication.

Aviation & Aerospace industries are amongst the ones that stand to gain most from advantages 3D printing brings to New Product Development & Advanced Manufacturing.

An area ripe for revolution & currently witnessing a metamorphosis, due to 3D printing technologies, is the design of the jet engine itself.

When the first jet engine for civilian use was designed for mass production, humans had yet to land on the moon.

However, since 2016, steady progress has been made towards a redesign & re-imagining of the traditional jet engine design.

One way 3D printing helps, is by providing the ability to have lighter & fewer components.

3ideatech 2021-04-29
img

From printing thermoplastics to metals, 3D printers can now print your favourite food.

It is important for the food item being printed, that the build material should emerge smoothly from the nozzle & it must maintain its shape upon deposition.

This method of direct deposition allows creation of intricate & detailed designs of food, as opposed to traditional tools like moulds, which are cost effective for quantity production, but offer little to no design intricacy.

Due to the amazing detail SLA brings to 3D printing, it is possible to add detail & customization to foods that was once only possible for skilled artisans.

A 3D printer can help determine the exact quantity of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats as per the user’s age & health requirement.

It also helps people with no cooking skills to cook highly accurate recipes while saving time & energy, often demanded by traditional cooking methods.

3ideatech 2021-01-18
img

The 3D printer features high speed and high utilization rate.

Although the digital operation mode has low fault rate, if the fault appears, it will not only affect the printing quality, but also waste time and filaments, and even damage the machine.

At present, the most common fault of 3D printer is that the nozzle is blocked and cannot discharge.

There are several reasons and solutions about nozzle fault.

Given below are some of the reasons for nozzle blockage and their solutions:-Reason 1The residual filaments solidify and block the nozzle because the nozzle is not cleaned in time after printing.Solution 1First, heat the nozzle to the normal melting temperature of printing consumables; then try to insert the wire into the nozzle manually.

Normally, the downward pressure of manual feeding can penetrate the consumable line and bring out the blocked debris;Finally, if the nozzle still fails to work, try to use a 1.5mm hexagonal wrench to dredge the throat or nozzle.

3ideatech 2021-02-25
img

The origins of 3D printing can however be traced back to over 30 years ago during the 1980s.

One of the first patents filed for rapid prototyping was by Dr. Kodama in Japan.

Dr. Kodama however was unable to obtain a patent due to some delays.

On the other hand, Charles Hull, who co-founded the company 3D Systems, successfully filed a patent for a technology known as Stereolithography Apparatus or Stereolithography as it is known today, in 1986.

However, the research only yielded processes that were good for prototyping purposes and hence the technology was limited when it came to printing original 3D models.Early 2000s saw the rise of industrial 3D printers, which were suited to building complex parts, with high value and complex geometry.

Around the same time, low cost 3D printers useful for concept modelling and functional prototyping arrived on the scene.