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Thomas Saysongkham 2021-04-29
(Aalto University) Researchers at Aalto University have now discovered that electrodes in lithium batteries containing cobalt can be reused as is after being newly saturated with lithium. In comparison to traditional recycling, which typically extracts metals from crushed batteries by melting or dissolving them, the new process saves valuable raw materials, and likely also energy.
collect
0
James Dalporto 2017-04-06

It may have been a formality, but the European Parliament has finally voted to approve a recent agreement to end exorbitant roaming charges across the European Union (EU).The plan was originally announced two years ago, at the same time the European Commission revealed a broader digital single market (DSM) that would pull together EU rules and regulation around digital content and services — including using a mobile phone in a neighboring EU country.While many domestic mobile networks already offer favorable pricing for those using an existing plan across the EU, the new regulations sought to end roaming fees once and for all.

However, the plan to end roaming charges ran into fierce opposition from carriers concerned about profits, and for a while it seemed the proposal would be killed.

But back in February this year, the Commission said that negotiators had reached an agreement on such technical issues as sharing carrier costs across networks.The agreement was all but set in stone, but today’s vote in the Parliament gives it the official greenlight, and from June 15 this year travelers in the EU can move between countries without worrying about racking up huge bills.“I welcome today’s positive vote of the European Parliament on wholesale roaming prices, following the agreement reached between the European Parliament, the Council, and the Commission at the beginning of the year,” said Andrus Ansip, vice president for the digital single market.

“This is a great achievement for all of us.

Notwithstanding the final OK from Member States, this agreement on wholesale roaming prices will be the final step to [ending] roaming charges for all travelers in the EU.”

collect
0
Efrain Johnson 2017-07-01
img

The problem with regulating technology companies is that, faced with tough new rules, they can eventually innovate their way out, often by switching to newer, unregulated technologies.

The risk of targeted regulation informed by little other than economic doctrines might even be fuelling a corporate quest for eternal disruption: instead of surrendering to the regulators, technology firms prefer to abandon their old business model.

It arrives after a lengthy, seven-year investigation into whether the company abused its dominance to promote its own online shopping service above search results.

The commission’s case seems sound; the sad fate of small online retailers, unable to compete with Alphabet over the past decade, suggests as much.

Alphabet’s future revolves around information-intensive services, not around running matchmaking platforms for advertising.

That data trove allows Alphabet to predict our information needs in a way that does not always require us to type in a search query.

collect
0
Edmond Garcia 2017-06-28
img

Google was served the biggest antitrust fine in history by the European Commission Tuesday.

The $2.7 billion fine was aimed at Google's shopping practices, which the EC deemed unfair to Google's competition.

Macquarie Research thinks that while the practice probably is unfair, the fine severely limits Google's ability to refine and improve its core product, which could mean big headwinds for Google in Europe.

Macquarie argues in a recent note to clients that the recent decision to fine Google is a basic assault on its ability to do business in the EU.

It is then, in effect, stating that if Google improves its services within is general offering (e.g., adding shopping services, or potentially a host of other features), then these improvements are harming competitors unfairly.

We see this as misguided given that, in our view, Google should (and must) continually improve its offerings if it is to provide consumers and advertisers more useful features.

collect
0
Bradley James 2017-11-07
img

Underdogs fail to see how that's a competition 'remedy'

As the European Commission mulls Google's own remedy to its anti-competitive behaviour on the web, the former startup behind the original complaint has warned of possible consequences.

Foundem was destroyed by Google's promotion of its own Google Shopping – which doesn't offer customers the best deal, but is another pay-for-placement ad channel, a shop window.

The European Commission already found that Alphabet is guilty of infringing Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by introducing this, but spent years stalling a formal decision in the hope Google would reform.

Faced with a record fine, Google is now invited to come up with its own solution that should, we learn from a tender document, create a level playing field.

Any measure chosen by Google must, however, ensure that it treats competing comparison shopping services no less favourably than its own comparison shopping service within its general search results pages.

collect
0
Juan Hackwell 2017-09-19
img

It’s unclear at this point whether the document was published prematurely and an announcement is still to follow, or whether the Commission is intentionally keeping the strategy out of the spotlight.

As one cybersecurity measure, the EU commits itself to “encouraging the uptake of [the communications protocol] IPv6” since “the allocation of a single user per IP address” makes it easier “to investigate malicious online behavior” — a reasoning that’s at best oversimplified, as this ten-year-old report from the US Department of Commerce explains, and at worst betrays a dangerous form of thinking in which the complete surveillance of each individual’s online activities is the implied goal of cybersecurity policy.

That it lauds strong encryption for its ability to “keep people’s intellectual property secure” is another odd choice of security priorities.

All things considered, the communication is most remarkable for what it does not contain: a whole host of measures that would actually make Europeans safer online, but on which EU action is lacking, if not actively counter-productive.

That’s why my colleague Jan Philipp Albrecht and I have gathered alternative proposals.

Updates are the most important tool to ensure the sustained security and integrity of systems and networks we use.

collect
0
David Brown 2016-05-23

View photosMoreAn illustration picture shows a projection of binary code on a man holding a laptop computer, in an office in Warsaw June 24, 2013.

In a letter to the European Commission and the Netherlands - which holds the rotating EU presidency - ministers from countries including Poland, Britain, Sweden and Finland urged Brussels to make sure regulation is not a barrier to the development of data-driven technologies and to avoid one-size-fits-all rules for online platforms such as Amazon and Facebook.

The Commission last year unveiled its Digital Single Market strategy, a wide-ranging plan to knock down barriers in the online world to give Europe a better chance of competing with mainly U.S. tech giants.

On Wednesday, it will present the results of its inquiry into online platforms and where it thinks action may be needed.

The strategy has faced accusations of protectionism - which the Commission says are unfounded - and data flows to the United States have endured a particularly tough ride since revelations of mass U.S. government snooping programs.

"It's extremely important to allow free data flows across the EU and we know that in some member states there are ideas to localize data inside of those beautiful countries.

collect
0
James Talbot 2017-10-04
img

Amazon has been ordered to repay €250m (£222m) by EU authorities, after a ruling that the technology company benefited from illegal and unfair state aid from Luxembourg.

The European commission also announced on Wednesday that it plans to take the the Irish government to the European court of justice (ECJ) over its failure to collect €13bn in unpaid taxes from Apple, in relation to an earlier ruling.

Margrethe Vestager, the EU commissioner in charge of competition, said Luxembourg’s “illegal tax advantages to Amazon” had allowed almost three-quarters of the company’s profits to go untaxed, allowing it to pay four times less tax than local rivals.

“Member states may not grant selective tax concessions to multinational groups to which other companies do not have access.”

The commission said Amazon had benefited from an illegal tax deal granted by the Luxembourg authorities that allowed the company to artificially reduce its tax bill by €250m from 2006 to 2014.

In a separate announcement, Vestager announced she was appealing to Europe’s highest court to enforce an earlier ruling against Apple to ensure the iPhone maker repaid €13bn in back taxes.

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0
Michael Rase 2020-08-27
img
Yarr, where's me booty?
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0
Thomas Brazier 2017-06-16
img

Whispers around Brussels tell the industry Google could be on its way to a whopping €1 billion fine from the European Commission after claims it abused its search market dominance.

The company is facing three antitrust decisions on the search group’s practices over the next couple of weeks, and according to sources from the Financial Times, the €1 billion slap is related to Google’s Shopping service.

Both parties have declined to comment for the moment, though if true, the fine would exceed that handed out to Intel in 2009.

It could be the beginning of another fall out between the European Commission and Silicon Valley, following the decision to fine Apple €13 billion for creative tax arrangements last year.

In truth, the European Commission is probably bowing to a little bit of pressure and lobbying power from Google’s rivals, who have been seeking investigations into the search giant’s activities for some time.

While this is unlikely to have Google execs sweating for the moment, the group holds $90 billion as of its last quarterly update, the ripples could be very worrying for future diversification ambitions.

collect
0
Nicholas Patton 2017-05-18
img

p The European Commission has fined Facebook €110m (£94.4m) for giving misleading or incorrect information about its takeover of messaging giant WhatsApp.

There were two separate offences – one when Facebook first notified the European Commission that it wanted to buy WhatsApp and a second when it responded to an EC request for further information.

On both occasions the company said it was not possible to automatically and reliably match a WhatsApp user profile and their Facebook profile.

The Commission said it "found that, contrary to Facebook's statements in the 2014 merger review process, the technical possibility of automatically matching Facebook and WhatsApp users' identities already existed in 2014, and that Facebook staff were aware of such a possibility.”

The cat was let out of the bag when Facebook changed its Ts in August 2016 to allow such automatic sharing of data and matching of profiles between the two platforms.

The data swap was criticised at the time by the UK’s Information Commissioner, which said WhatsApp had failed to get proper consent from users to hand over their data to Facebook.

collect
0
Val Strefeler 2016-09-15
img

Plans for a coordinated approach to regulation are being discussed.

The European Commission is aiming to push a capital markets union and believes that fintech could play an important role.

The Commission has been highlighting the important role that technology can play as a driver of competition, and for bringing capital markets closer to companies and investors.

Although there has been rapid development in fintech and it could play this bonding role, the Commission has warned: the rapid development of fintech poses new challenges in managing risk and ensuring consumers have adequate information and safeguards, said a communication from the Commission.

The communication was directed to; the European Parliament, the Council, the European Central Bank, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.

Currently there is a veritable smorgasbord of regulations regarding finance and fintech across Europe and the world.

collect
0
Bruce Garland 2019-02-05
img

Some parents get their kids smartwatches to buy themselves a little peace of mind about their child’s safety.

The latest incident involves the Enox Safe-KID-One, which was just recalled by the European Commission as it was deemed particularly vulnerable to malicious actors.

The alert was submitted to the Commission by Iceland, with the alleged lack of data encryption cited as the primary reason for the recall.

“The mobile application accompanying the watch has unencrypted communications with its backend server and the server enables unauthenticated access to data.

As a consequence, the data such as location history, phone numbers, serial number(s) can easily be retrieved and changed.

A malicious user can send commands to any watch making it call another number of his choosing, can communicate with the child wearing the device or locate the child through GPS.”

collect
0
William Figueroa 2017-10-05
img

The European Commission on Wednesday stepped up its campaign to force big American technology companies to pay more taxes on Wednesday.

It ruled that Luxembourg had violated EU rules by allowing the bulk of Amazon's European profits to go untaxed, and it announced it was taking Ireland to court for failing to collect higher taxes from Apple, after Ireland ignored a similar ruling from the EC last year.

If the EC wins the battle, Apple could owe €13 billion ($15 billion), while Amazon could owe an extra €250 million ($290 million).

The EU's competition commissioner, Margrethe Vestager, says that she's just trying to create a level playing field by preventing big multinational companies from getting sweetheart deals not available to most companies.

But critics say Vestager is meddling in the internal tax policy decisions of democratic nations—and some have also insinuated that she has been singling out American multinationals for extra scrutiny.

Small European countries have found they can attract business from big companies by creating business-friendly tax regimes.

collect
0
William Carter 2017-09-11
img

According to The Telegraph, Google is planning to file an appeal against the roughly $2.7 billion (€2.4 billion) antitrust fine imposed by the European Commission in June for abuse of market position in shopping search.

The fine was the largest in EU history; the previous record fine was $1.3 billion against Intel.

Last week, Intel won a rare partial victory against EU antitrust regulators when the European Court of Justice instructed a lower court to re-examine its decision and take a closer look at the underlying facts and market impact of Intel’s behavior.

It’s not clear whether last week’s decision impacted Google’s thinking on whether or not to appeal (Google’s decision was likely made before last week).

Though it will likely be in process for several years, an appeal makes sense because the company faces potential similar fines and demands for change around other types of “vertical search” results such as maps/local, travel and other categories.

Google is required to submit proposals for changes in its search results to bring them into compliance with EU rules.

collect
0
Mary Condie 2017-09-21
img

Back in 2014, the European Commission paid the Dutch consulting firm Ecorys 360,000 euros (about $428,000) to research the effect piracy had on sales of copyrighted content.

What the @EU_Commission found out about copyright infringement but ‘forgot’ to tell us https://t.co/Sxshdxy3KZ pic.twitter.com/Vk4Q74k1Hv

— Julia Reda (@Senficon) September 20, 2017

The 300-page report seems to suggest that there’s no evidence that supports the idea that piracy has a negative effect on sales of copyrighted content (with some exceptions for recently released blockbusters).

In general, the results do not show robust statistical evidence of displacement of sales by online copyright infringements.

That does not necessarily mean that piracy has no effect but only that the statistical analysis does not prove with sufficient reliability that there is an effect.

collect
0
Thomas Saysongkham 2021-04-29
(Aalto University) Researchers at Aalto University have now discovered that electrodes in lithium batteries containing cobalt can be reused as is after being newly saturated with lithium. In comparison to traditional recycling, which typically extracts metals from crushed batteries by melting or dissolving them, the new process saves valuable raw materials, and likely also energy.
Efrain Johnson 2017-07-01
img

The problem with regulating technology companies is that, faced with tough new rules, they can eventually innovate their way out, often by switching to newer, unregulated technologies.

The risk of targeted regulation informed by little other than economic doctrines might even be fuelling a corporate quest for eternal disruption: instead of surrendering to the regulators, technology firms prefer to abandon their old business model.

It arrives after a lengthy, seven-year investigation into whether the company abused its dominance to promote its own online shopping service above search results.

The commission’s case seems sound; the sad fate of small online retailers, unable to compete with Alphabet over the past decade, suggests as much.

Alphabet’s future revolves around information-intensive services, not around running matchmaking platforms for advertising.

That data trove allows Alphabet to predict our information needs in a way that does not always require us to type in a search query.

Bradley James 2017-11-07
img

Underdogs fail to see how that's a competition 'remedy'

As the European Commission mulls Google's own remedy to its anti-competitive behaviour on the web, the former startup behind the original complaint has warned of possible consequences.

Foundem was destroyed by Google's promotion of its own Google Shopping – which doesn't offer customers the best deal, but is another pay-for-placement ad channel, a shop window.

The European Commission already found that Alphabet is guilty of infringing Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by introducing this, but spent years stalling a formal decision in the hope Google would reform.

Faced with a record fine, Google is now invited to come up with its own solution that should, we learn from a tender document, create a level playing field.

Any measure chosen by Google must, however, ensure that it treats competing comparison shopping services no less favourably than its own comparison shopping service within its general search results pages.

David Brown 2016-05-23

View photosMoreAn illustration picture shows a projection of binary code on a man holding a laptop computer, in an office in Warsaw June 24, 2013.

In a letter to the European Commission and the Netherlands - which holds the rotating EU presidency - ministers from countries including Poland, Britain, Sweden and Finland urged Brussels to make sure regulation is not a barrier to the development of data-driven technologies and to avoid one-size-fits-all rules for online platforms such as Amazon and Facebook.

The Commission last year unveiled its Digital Single Market strategy, a wide-ranging plan to knock down barriers in the online world to give Europe a better chance of competing with mainly U.S. tech giants.

On Wednesday, it will present the results of its inquiry into online platforms and where it thinks action may be needed.

The strategy has faced accusations of protectionism - which the Commission says are unfounded - and data flows to the United States have endured a particularly tough ride since revelations of mass U.S. government snooping programs.

"It's extremely important to allow free data flows across the EU and we know that in some member states there are ideas to localize data inside of those beautiful countries.

Michael Rase 2020-08-27
img
Yarr, where's me booty?
Nicholas Patton 2017-05-18
img

p The European Commission has fined Facebook €110m (£94.4m) for giving misleading or incorrect information about its takeover of messaging giant WhatsApp.

There were two separate offences – one when Facebook first notified the European Commission that it wanted to buy WhatsApp and a second when it responded to an EC request for further information.

On both occasions the company said it was not possible to automatically and reliably match a WhatsApp user profile and their Facebook profile.

The Commission said it "found that, contrary to Facebook's statements in the 2014 merger review process, the technical possibility of automatically matching Facebook and WhatsApp users' identities already existed in 2014, and that Facebook staff were aware of such a possibility.”

The cat was let out of the bag when Facebook changed its Ts in August 2016 to allow such automatic sharing of data and matching of profiles between the two platforms.

The data swap was criticised at the time by the UK’s Information Commissioner, which said WhatsApp had failed to get proper consent from users to hand over their data to Facebook.

Bruce Garland 2019-02-05
img

Some parents get their kids smartwatches to buy themselves a little peace of mind about their child’s safety.

The latest incident involves the Enox Safe-KID-One, which was just recalled by the European Commission as it was deemed particularly vulnerable to malicious actors.

The alert was submitted to the Commission by Iceland, with the alleged lack of data encryption cited as the primary reason for the recall.

“The mobile application accompanying the watch has unencrypted communications with its backend server and the server enables unauthenticated access to data.

As a consequence, the data such as location history, phone numbers, serial number(s) can easily be retrieved and changed.

A malicious user can send commands to any watch making it call another number of his choosing, can communicate with the child wearing the device or locate the child through GPS.”

William Carter 2017-09-11
img

According to The Telegraph, Google is planning to file an appeal against the roughly $2.7 billion (€2.4 billion) antitrust fine imposed by the European Commission in June for abuse of market position in shopping search.

The fine was the largest in EU history; the previous record fine was $1.3 billion against Intel.

Last week, Intel won a rare partial victory against EU antitrust regulators when the European Court of Justice instructed a lower court to re-examine its decision and take a closer look at the underlying facts and market impact of Intel’s behavior.

It’s not clear whether last week’s decision impacted Google’s thinking on whether or not to appeal (Google’s decision was likely made before last week).

Though it will likely be in process for several years, an appeal makes sense because the company faces potential similar fines and demands for change around other types of “vertical search” results such as maps/local, travel and other categories.

Google is required to submit proposals for changes in its search results to bring them into compliance with EU rules.

James Dalporto 2017-04-06

It may have been a formality, but the European Parliament has finally voted to approve a recent agreement to end exorbitant roaming charges across the European Union (EU).The plan was originally announced two years ago, at the same time the European Commission revealed a broader digital single market (DSM) that would pull together EU rules and regulation around digital content and services — including using a mobile phone in a neighboring EU country.While many domestic mobile networks already offer favorable pricing for those using an existing plan across the EU, the new regulations sought to end roaming fees once and for all.

However, the plan to end roaming charges ran into fierce opposition from carriers concerned about profits, and for a while it seemed the proposal would be killed.

But back in February this year, the Commission said that negotiators had reached an agreement on such technical issues as sharing carrier costs across networks.The agreement was all but set in stone, but today’s vote in the Parliament gives it the official greenlight, and from June 15 this year travelers in the EU can move between countries without worrying about racking up huge bills.“I welcome today’s positive vote of the European Parliament on wholesale roaming prices, following the agreement reached between the European Parliament, the Council, and the Commission at the beginning of the year,” said Andrus Ansip, vice president for the digital single market.

“This is a great achievement for all of us.

Notwithstanding the final OK from Member States, this agreement on wholesale roaming prices will be the final step to [ending] roaming charges for all travelers in the EU.”

Edmond Garcia 2017-06-28
img

Google was served the biggest antitrust fine in history by the European Commission Tuesday.

The $2.7 billion fine was aimed at Google's shopping practices, which the EC deemed unfair to Google's competition.

Macquarie Research thinks that while the practice probably is unfair, the fine severely limits Google's ability to refine and improve its core product, which could mean big headwinds for Google in Europe.

Macquarie argues in a recent note to clients that the recent decision to fine Google is a basic assault on its ability to do business in the EU.

It is then, in effect, stating that if Google improves its services within is general offering (e.g., adding shopping services, or potentially a host of other features), then these improvements are harming competitors unfairly.

We see this as misguided given that, in our view, Google should (and must) continually improve its offerings if it is to provide consumers and advertisers more useful features.

Juan Hackwell 2017-09-19
img

It’s unclear at this point whether the document was published prematurely and an announcement is still to follow, or whether the Commission is intentionally keeping the strategy out of the spotlight.

As one cybersecurity measure, the EU commits itself to “encouraging the uptake of [the communications protocol] IPv6” since “the allocation of a single user per IP address” makes it easier “to investigate malicious online behavior” — a reasoning that’s at best oversimplified, as this ten-year-old report from the US Department of Commerce explains, and at worst betrays a dangerous form of thinking in which the complete surveillance of each individual’s online activities is the implied goal of cybersecurity policy.

That it lauds strong encryption for its ability to “keep people’s intellectual property secure” is another odd choice of security priorities.

All things considered, the communication is most remarkable for what it does not contain: a whole host of measures that would actually make Europeans safer online, but on which EU action is lacking, if not actively counter-productive.

That’s why my colleague Jan Philipp Albrecht and I have gathered alternative proposals.

Updates are the most important tool to ensure the sustained security and integrity of systems and networks we use.

James Talbot 2017-10-04
img

Amazon has been ordered to repay €250m (£222m) by EU authorities, after a ruling that the technology company benefited from illegal and unfair state aid from Luxembourg.

The European commission also announced on Wednesday that it plans to take the the Irish government to the European court of justice (ECJ) over its failure to collect €13bn in unpaid taxes from Apple, in relation to an earlier ruling.

Margrethe Vestager, the EU commissioner in charge of competition, said Luxembourg’s “illegal tax advantages to Amazon” had allowed almost three-quarters of the company’s profits to go untaxed, allowing it to pay four times less tax than local rivals.

“Member states may not grant selective tax concessions to multinational groups to which other companies do not have access.”

The commission said Amazon had benefited from an illegal tax deal granted by the Luxembourg authorities that allowed the company to artificially reduce its tax bill by €250m from 2006 to 2014.

In a separate announcement, Vestager announced she was appealing to Europe’s highest court to enforce an earlier ruling against Apple to ensure the iPhone maker repaid €13bn in back taxes.

Thomas Brazier 2017-06-16
img

Whispers around Brussels tell the industry Google could be on its way to a whopping €1 billion fine from the European Commission after claims it abused its search market dominance.

The company is facing three antitrust decisions on the search group’s practices over the next couple of weeks, and according to sources from the Financial Times, the €1 billion slap is related to Google’s Shopping service.

Both parties have declined to comment for the moment, though if true, the fine would exceed that handed out to Intel in 2009.

It could be the beginning of another fall out between the European Commission and Silicon Valley, following the decision to fine Apple €13 billion for creative tax arrangements last year.

In truth, the European Commission is probably bowing to a little bit of pressure and lobbying power from Google’s rivals, who have been seeking investigations into the search giant’s activities for some time.

While this is unlikely to have Google execs sweating for the moment, the group holds $90 billion as of its last quarterly update, the ripples could be very worrying for future diversification ambitions.

Val Strefeler 2016-09-15
img

Plans for a coordinated approach to regulation are being discussed.

The European Commission is aiming to push a capital markets union and believes that fintech could play an important role.

The Commission has been highlighting the important role that technology can play as a driver of competition, and for bringing capital markets closer to companies and investors.

Although there has been rapid development in fintech and it could play this bonding role, the Commission has warned: the rapid development of fintech poses new challenges in managing risk and ensuring consumers have adequate information and safeguards, said a communication from the Commission.

The communication was directed to; the European Parliament, the Council, the European Central Bank, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.

Currently there is a veritable smorgasbord of regulations regarding finance and fintech across Europe and the world.

William Figueroa 2017-10-05
img

The European Commission on Wednesday stepped up its campaign to force big American technology companies to pay more taxes on Wednesday.

It ruled that Luxembourg had violated EU rules by allowing the bulk of Amazon's European profits to go untaxed, and it announced it was taking Ireland to court for failing to collect higher taxes from Apple, after Ireland ignored a similar ruling from the EC last year.

If the EC wins the battle, Apple could owe €13 billion ($15 billion), while Amazon could owe an extra €250 million ($290 million).

The EU's competition commissioner, Margrethe Vestager, says that she's just trying to create a level playing field by preventing big multinational companies from getting sweetheart deals not available to most companies.

But critics say Vestager is meddling in the internal tax policy decisions of democratic nations—and some have also insinuated that she has been singling out American multinationals for extra scrutiny.

Small European countries have found they can attract business from big companies by creating business-friendly tax regimes.

Mary Condie 2017-09-21
img

Back in 2014, the European Commission paid the Dutch consulting firm Ecorys 360,000 euros (about $428,000) to research the effect piracy had on sales of copyrighted content.

What the @EU_Commission found out about copyright infringement but ‘forgot’ to tell us https://t.co/Sxshdxy3KZ pic.twitter.com/Vk4Q74k1Hv

— Julia Reda (@Senficon) September 20, 2017

The 300-page report seems to suggest that there’s no evidence that supports the idea that piracy has a negative effect on sales of copyrighted content (with some exceptions for recently released blockbusters).

In general, the results do not show robust statistical evidence of displacement of sales by online copyright infringements.

That does not necessarily mean that piracy has no effect but only that the statistical analysis does not prove with sufficient reliability that there is an effect.