Distributed fiber optic sensor are the subject of in-depth research and are important players in the sensor ecosystem. When external vibration is given to the sensing fiber, optical properties such as light intensity, phase, polarisation state, or light frequency will vary. This article reviews a number of distributed fiber optic sensing technologies, including backscattering-based techniques like phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometers, polarization-optical time domain reflectometers, and optical frequency domain reflectometers, as well as some hybrids of the two. Interferometric techniques include Sagnac, Mach-Zehnder, and Michelson. Recent research initiatives are also featured, along with a presentation of their operating principles. The applications of distributed fiber-optic sensor are finally enumerated, with a focus on perimeter security and structural health monitoring, among other things. Distributed fiber optic sensor have the potential for a wide range of practical applications because they have the benefits of large-scale monitoring, outstanding concealment, excellent flexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic interference.
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