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Family Law System in India : An In-depth Study

Tushar Srivastava
Family Law System in India : An In-depth Study

Family law in India is a branch of law that deals with various aspects of family and domestic relations. It governs the legal rights and obligations of individuals in familial relationships such as marriage, divorce, child custody, adoption, and inheritance. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide on all the important aspects of family law in India for any query you may contact Best Family Lawyer in Delhi.


Marriage is the most fundamental institution in family law. In India, marriage can be solemnized under various personal laws based on the religion of the parties involved. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937, Special Marriage Act, 1954, and Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872 are some of the important laws governing marriage in India.

The Hindu Marriage Act applies to Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists, and it provides for monogamy and prohibits polygamy. The Muslim Personal Law allows polygamy and recognizes the practice of Nikah, a marriage contract between the bride and the groom. The Special Marriage Act is applicable to all citizens of India irrespective of their religion and allows inter-caste and inter-religion marriages.


Divorce is the legal dissolution of a marriage, and it is governed by various personal laws in India. Hindu Marriage Act, Muslim Personal Law, and Special Marriage Act provide for divorce under different grounds. The grounds for divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act are cruelty, adultery, desertion, conversion to another religion, unsoundness of mind, and incurable disease.

Under the Muslim Personal Law, the grounds for divorce are talaq (divorce initiated by the husband), khula (divorce initiated by the wife), and mubaraat (divorce by mutual consent). The Special Marriage Act provides for divorce on grounds similar to the Hindu Marriage Act and also includes additional grounds such as the failure of the spouse to comply with the restitution of conjugal rights, the spouse’s mental illness, and venereal disease.

Child custody

Child custody is one of the most important issues in family law, and it is decided by the court based on the best interests of the child. In India, child custody is governed by various laws such as the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956, the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, and the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015.

The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act provides for the natural guardian of a Hindu minor, which is the father, and if the father is not alive, the mother becomes the natural guardian. In case of a dispute between the parents, the court decides the custody based on the best interests of the child.


Adoption is the legal process of taking a child of one set of parents and raising them as one’s own. In India, adoption is governed by the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956, and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.

Under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, only Hindus can adopt a child, and the child must be unmarried, below the age of 15, and the adoption must be done in compliance with the provisions of the act. The Juvenile Justice Act, 2015, provides for the adoption of children who are abandoned, surrendered, or orphaned.


Inheritance refers to the process of passing on of property, assets, and liabilities of a deceased person to their legal heirs. In India, inheritance is governed by various personal laws such as the Hindu Succession Act, 1956, Muslim Personal Law, and the Indian Succession Act, 1925.

Under the Hindu Succession Act, the property of a Hindu male dying intestate (without a will) is distributed equally among his legal heirs, which includes his widow, children, mother, and father. If the deceased has no legal heirs, the property will be inherited by his or her relatives according to the order of succession as per the act.

Muslim Personal Law also provides for inheritance, and it differs from the Hindu law. In Muslim law, the property is divided into three parts, one-third is distributed among the heirs as per the Quranic shares, one-third can be disposed of by the deceased through will, and one-third is the residuary estate that is distributed among the heirs.

The Indian Succession Act applies to Christians and people of other religions and provides for the distribution of the property of a person who dies intestate according to the order of succession specified in the act.

Domestic violence

Domestic violence is a widespread problem in India, and it is defined as any act of violence or abuse by a person against their spouse, children, or any other family member. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, provides for the protection of women from domestic violence and abuse.

Under the act, a woman can file a complaint against her husband or any other family member for domestic violence. The court can issue a protection order, a residence order, and a monetary relief order to provide protection and relief to the victim.

Who is the Best Family Lawyer in Delhi?

Advocate Tushar Srivastava is a highly skilled and experienced lawyer based in Delhi. He has been practicing law for several years and has earned a reputation as one of the Best family lawyers in Delhi. He has a passion for helping people resolve their legal disputes and ensuring their rights are protected.


Family law is an important branch of law that deals with the legal rights and obligations of individuals in familial relationships. It governs various aspects of family life, such as marriage, divorce, child custody, adoption, and inheritance. Understanding family law is crucial for anyone who is involved in family matters, and it can help in resolving disputes and protecting the rights of individuals.

Tushar Srivastava
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