Separators divide oil and gas well streams into gaseous and liquid components. The separators can be used in either an onshore or offshore processing facility. Many more separator applications include Gas station Compressors (upstream and downstream). Liquid traps in gas transmission lines. Also, desiccant intakes, gas sweeteners, and other desiccant-filled devices can be found.
In the oil and gas separators outnumber any other piece of process equipment. All the vessels mentioned above for gas separation and free liquid separation have a common aim.
Separators can be categorized by vessel position and the number of fluids to separate.
Depending on the vessel's orientation (horizontal or vertical), it may be a 2-phase or 3-phase system.
Depending on the context in which they are housed, the following types of separators are commonly used:
The Horizontal Separation
It is possible to use horizontal separators when gravity or vacuum degassing is insufficient for successful separation. In addition to the previously mentioned collection system, surge drum, and tray packs, these vessels have a similar form factor to vertical contactors.
From 16 feet to 120 feet in height, hydrocyclone separators can be found in diameters between 3 feet and 5 feet (5 m to 37 m). Internal tray packs can be used in horizontal separators up to roughly 150 cm/bbl (0.02m3/moon) gas/liquid ratios.
Vertical separators can accommodate gas and liquid flow rates over various capacities. This sort of separator is the most common on offshore platforms. Still, it can also be utilized in some onshore applications where gravity is not adequate to separate liquids and gases in a gas stream.
With their two-phase differential pressure across their bodies, contactors distribute liquids more evenly on both the top and bottom of their bodies. Every time there's a surge, contractors use a surge drum to capture any loose liquids that may have leaked out. Because loose liquids can re-enter a vapor air stream, the drum must be kept below the trays to prevent this.
However, there are several limitations to vertical separators that must be taken into account. The vessel has a high capacity, necessitating more room and piping for connecting reasons than spherical separators.
Separators in the Shape of a Spheroid
Compact and low-cost, spherical separators are a great alternative to cylindrical separators. They're a breeze to use in terms of liquid and vapor loads.
For example, they are inexpensive, easy to use, and trim. Low gas/liquid ratios result in reduced efficiency due to the trade-off. Because of this, they're not as common as they once were.
Categories for each phase of the process
All stages have a steam trunk that provides heat to the final stage, an overhead vapor supply line, and a downcomer line for liquid from the previous level.
To categorize separators, there are two types of "phase classifications."
● Separation of gas and liquid in two phases
● Oil-gas-water separator
Phase Separators in two different configurations.
Two-stage separators, called double effect vessels, use two connected separators to separate liquids. As a result of this initial vessel, liquids are obtained that can be used to strip the second stage of vapors. These containers have a higher-elevation vapor line than a single-stage unit to accommodate the purge vapors.
Filters with three phases of separation
Rapid vertical stripping separates gases, vapors, liquids, and solids using three-phase separators. The three-phase separator features radial vanes positioned inside two chambers separated vertically by an annular region.
In the chamber below, a high-speed stream of steam is entrained by the radial vanes. The lower chamber holds crude oil stripped, while the upper chamber has open slots for gas to enter.
For the 3-phase separator to fully separate all three fluids, it should be used in conjunction with a vessel that only holds gas or liquid. High-velocity separation of oil, water, and solids occur with negligible stripping when this vessel is connected between two 2-phase vessels.