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How does a solar panel work?

Solar radiation is an inexhaustible source of energy — at least for the next few billion years — and, above all, perfectly free. However, progress in technologies and the operation of photovoltaic panels allows you today to fully exploit this energy windfall, and Solar companies in Australia to produce your own electricity - or heat in the case of thermal sensors - Solar energy in Australia in order to reduce your bill significantly. very significant while gaining autonomy.

But how, exactly, does an installation perched on your roof manage to transform the light of the daylight into an electrical current that can be consumed by your main domestic appliances? The operating principle of solar panels is relatively simple to understand and deserves to be understood before committing to a long-term investment.

Discover below the essentials to know, about the main mechanisms of Solar energy in Australia preferred partner of your projects and numerous RGE certified installers in France.

In summary:

·        How photovoltaic panels work

·        Composition

·        Principle of operation

·        Manufacturing

·        Yield

·        Use

·        How thermal panels work

·        Solar water heater

·        Combined solar system

·        How hybrid panels work

How photovoltaic panels work: how does it work?

A “photovoltaic” element, to use the most basic definition of the term, is capable of converting photons into volts, Solar Panel in Australia that is to say light (radiative) energy into electrical energy. This reaction is obtained by exploiting certain laws of physics Solar Panel Sydney and obeys relatively simple operating rules.

What is a photovoltaic installation made of?

Let us first remember that an installation of solar panels, often sold and installed as a kit, is not just about the panels. It includes a set of components each with a distinct mission, including:

Photovoltaic cell modules (i.e., panels), whose role is to transform light energy from the sun into direct electrical current;

The mounting or roof integration system, allowing the panels to be securely anchored to the frame and ensuring their stability for many years;

Operating principle of a photovoltaic solar installation

Each solar panel is made up of a set of photovoltaic cells, Solar energy in Australia the dimensions of which vary. Depending on the manufacturers and technologies, a typical cell generally has a width and length of around 150-160 mm. However, amorphous silicon – rarer – allows more flexibility, even tailor-made: a cell can thus display a size between 12 and almost 300 mm, for a voltage of 1.5 to 24 V (source: Solem).

The photovoltaic effect was discovered by Antoine Becquerel in 1839, and is based on the interesting properties of certain so-called “semiconductor” materials when they come into contact with the sun's radiation. These semiconductors contain electrons which, when stimulated by solar photons, absorb part of their energy and enter into rapid movement, thus generating an electrical voltage.

How are photovoltaic panels made to work?

The design of photovoltaic solar panels is based on a precise and complex industrial process. The methods vary slightly depending on the type of panel (monocrystalline or polycrystalline).

Photovoltaic solar panel manufacturing process

Building a Solar Panel Sydney first requires having a silicon ingot. The latter is obtained by agglomeration of a large quantity of this semiconductor material, after its extraction from the sandy material, then by bringing it to very high temperature and mixing it with boron (chemical element).

What are the different types of photovoltaic panels?

There are two main types of solar panels depending on the manufacturing process:

Monocrystalline solar panels, which are more efficient, contain photovoltaic cells each made from a single crystal of silicon. Their design is more complex and expensive, as a purifying treatment is necessary to isolate and obtain a single crystal.

Polycrystalline solar panels have a less demanding manufacturing process. They are generally made from scrap silicon from the manufacture of monocrystalline panels. On the other hand, they are also less expensive.

How do we measure the efficiency of a photovoltaic solar panel?

The electric current produced by a photovoltaic installation is the addition of the production of all the cells of the installed Solar Panel in Australia. This maximum electrical power that can be supplied is referred to as “peak power”, and expressed in peak kilowatts (Wp).

The peak power should not be confused with the efficiency rate of the panel, which in turn designates the ratio between the quantity of electricity produced and the quantity of solar radiation received. This rate is generally between 7 and 24% according to Select, for correct operation, and depends, among other things, on the type of solar panel (see below), the amount of sunshine in your region, the inclination of the roof and Solar energy in Australia the its orientation relative to the sun. Before you start, do a free simulation to find out the performance of your future solar panels.

Photovoltaic panels: what are the possible uses in a domestic environment?

Photovoltaic solar panels installed on a house can be subject to two main modes of consumption: (partial) self-consumption of the electricity produced or its total resale. Their operation differs, particularly at the meter level.

How do thermal solar panels work?

Thermal solar panels do not produce electricity (unlike photovoltaic panels), but heat.

Solar collectors, placed on the roof of a building or on the ground, use solar radiation to heat a heat transfer liquid. Once heated, this fluid circulates to the heat exchanger of the solar water heater to heat it. In addition, when the amount of sunshine is insufficient and the temperature too low in the storage tanks, then the heat must be produced by a backup system (using an independent circuit).

How does a hybrid Solar Panel Sydney work?

These hybrid panels combine both a photovoltaic and thermal system, Solar energy in Australia that is, they are capable of generating electricity and heat. Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy into electricity, while thermal collectors use a heat transfer fluid to harvest heat from the sun. This heat is then transported to a storage tank where it can be used to heat water.

This hybrid system is divided into two models:

Hybrid air solar panels:(aero voltaic) are often used as part of an energy renovation. These panels have ventilation at the back, allowing hot air to be recovered. This hot air can be used to heat your home and/or to supply your thermodynamic tank and produce domestic hot water.

Hybrid water solar panels: the principle is similar, but instead of using air, this system uses water to heat domestic hot water. However, for heating, it is necessary to already have water radiators (cast iron) or to consider their installation.

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