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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) - Diagnosis and Treatment

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) - Diagnosis and Treatment

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) - Diagnosis and Treatment

Many people, including newborns, are diagnosed with Atrial Septal Defect (ASD). ASD is the medical term for the hole in the heart. A hole in the heart is considered a serious condition by people as it indicates shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heartbeats. But it is not that serious condition, the people think. Treatment for holes in the heart is possible. But, for the treatment of ASD, a medical professional of cardiology comes into the role.


A cardiology medical professional can be a cardiologist or cardiology surgeon one can consider for ASD Treatment. The cardiologist will provide topical medication, whereas the surgeon in this domain helps with effective surgical methods. To learn about those treatments this article has been prepared. In this article, we have added insights provided by the best cardiac surgeon in Delhi, who are experts across the country.


An Overview of Atrial Septal Defect

An Atrial Septal Defect is a congenital problem with the heart. In this condition, the muscular wall of the atrial septal develops with a hole in it. This hole can be different in size and it will affect the functioning of the organ to oxygenate the blood. As a result, the person may feel difficulty breathing and excessive tiredness even without making any physical effort.


Signs & Symptoms of Atrial Septal Defect

Some of the alarming signs and symptoms of an atrial septal defect are:


Symptoms in Children

  • Underweight.
  • Delayed growth.
  • Repeated infections of the respiratory system.


Symptoms of ASD in adults

  • Weary.
  • Breathlessness during physical activity.
  • Palpitations in the heart.
  • Rapid heartbeat or tachycardia.
  • Enlargement of the legs and arms.
  • The color of blue skin (cyanosis).

Types of Atrial Septal Defects

In general, ASD is classified into four categories. These are as follows-

  1. ASD Secundum
  2. Primary ASD
  3. ASD for Sinus Venosus
  4. Coronary Sinus Without a Roof

Also read: https://cardiologist-in-delhi.blogspot.com/2024/01/what-is-cardiac-arrest-things-you-must.html


Medical Conditions Associated With Atrial Septal Defects

  1. Mitral valve disease.
  2. Pulmonary stenosis.
  3. Ventricular septal defect (VSD).
  4. Genetic Disorders include:
  • Holt-Oram syndrome.
  • Down syndrome.
  • Thrombocytopenia-absent radii (TAR) syndrome.

What Causes Atrial Septal Defects?

It is unclear exactly what causes atrial septal defects. On the other hand, prenatal genetic alterations frequently result in congenital cardiac abnormalities. A birthing parent's chance of having a child with congenital heart disease may increase due to certain factors. Among these are:

  • Drinking of alcohol.
  • Tobacco use and smoking.
  • Using specific prescription drugs.


How is the Diagnosis of Atrial Septal Defect Made?

Tests that examine the anatomy and physiology of your heart are used to diagnose atrial septal defects.


Diagnostic procedures for atrial septal defects are

In order to determine whether you have an ASD and how it is affecting your heart, your doctor will perform one or more tests. Among them are:


  • ECG/EKG stands for electrocardiography. Your heart's electrical activity is displayed on an ECG. It can indicate whether you have an arrhythmia or other electrical heart system issues.
  • Radiography of the chest. This test will identify any enlargement of the right atrium or ventricle in you. It will also show you whether or not there is damage to the blood vessels in your lungs.
  • Echocardiography in the thoracic cavity (TTE). This test illustrates the effects of ASD-induced left-to-right shunting on the heart. It can display information about pulmonary hypertension as well.
  • Echocardiography through the oesophagus (TEE). An ultrasonography through the oesophagus is called a TEE. It displays an ASD's dimensions, form, and location. It can assess your heart valves as well. TEE is frequently utilized in percutaneous repair and ASD surgery.
  • Echocardiography within the heart (ICE). This is an internal ultrasound of your heart. Your heart receives an echo probe, a tiny camera, via a peripheral vein. This test displays the ASD's dimensions, form, and blood flow direction across it. It is frequently used in percutaneous (nonsurgical) ASD repair.

Heart MRIs and cardiac CT scans may be used in specific situations. Those with associated defects or less common forms of ASD benefit most from them.


Treatment of Atrial Septal Defect


ASD can be treated through percutaneous treatment. It is a non-surgical treatment. However, the effectiveness of the treatment depends upon various factors, such as

  • Type and size of ASD
  • The impact of ASD on the heart.
  • The patient has coronary artery disease, valve disease, and pulmonary hypertension.


Usually, small ASDs don't require repair. Even in cases where larger ASDs are not causing symptoms, they should still be repaired. This avoids critical issues which may occur later.


But, if one exhibits any indications of lung or heart damage, it must be repaired. The doctor will suggest treatment if-

  • One's heart is larger on the right side than on the left.
  • Significant shunting—the blood's passage through the ASD—occurs.


Certain ASD symptoms may be treated with medication, according to your doctor. Medication, however, is not available to seal the hole.


Prior to your repair treatment, it may be necessary for the candidate to take medication for pulmonary hypertension. This medicine reduces both the occurrence and the risk of pulmonary hypertension.


Nonsurgical Percutaneous Correction Of Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs)


This procedure involves the closure of the atrial septal defect by using a septal occluder to plug the aperture. The device is implanted via a catheter, which is an elongated and slender tube. The catheter, along with the occluder, is inserted into your heart via a vein in groyne. Upon removal of the occluder from the catheter, it promptly opens and shuts the aperture. Over time, the occluder undergoes tissue growth and integrates into your heart.


The majority of atrial septal defects (ASDs) are located in the secundum, and a small proportion found in the sinus venosus can be repaired using percutaneous suturing techniques. This is the conventional procedure, consequently.


Before the surgical procedure, a cardiac catheterization will assess the pressure in your heart and ascertain the precise location and dimensions of the atrial septal defect (ASD).


Following the repair, it is probable that you may receive a prescription for blood-thinning medicine (either an anticoagulant or antiplatelet) in order to mitigate the highly uncommon but probable occurrence of blood clots developing on the device. You and your doctor will discuss the optimal medication for your condition and determine the appropriate duration of treatment.


Surgeons Treat Atrial Septal Defects

Primary ASD, anomalies of the coronary sinus, and the majority of sinus venosus ASDs require surgical intervention. Consultation with a cardiac surgeon specializing in congenital heart disease is recommended for the management of these uncommon abnormalities. Specific individuals may be appropriate candidates for minimally invasive procedures such as robotically assisted surgery.


During the surgical procedure, the atrial septal defect (ASD) is frequently closed by applying a tissue patch. Typically, the tissue originates from the pericardium, which is the membrane around the heart. Some specific secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) can be surgically repaired solely by sutures without requiring a patch.


A significant number of individuals undergo intense fear when they acknowledge their emotional imperfections. Observing the child's experience can be much more terrifying. However, the selection of the right cardiac surgeon will be beneficial. To find the best heart surgery specialist in Delhi, one can visit Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and schedule an appointment with Dr. Sujay Shad (a leading heart doctor in the nation).



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